Analysis on the overall progress of the reform of

2022-08-23
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Analysis of the overall progress of power system reform since the 18th CPC National Congress, China's power system reform has ushered in a new spring. Under the guidance of the energy strategic thought of "four revolutions and one cooperation", a new round of power system reform is mature and rapidly pushed forward. Up to now, the pilot of power system reform has basically achieved full coverage, forming a pattern of comprehensive pilot based and multi-mode exploration. The proportion of market-oriented trading electricity is increasing, which has greatly released the dividends of power system reform

the top-level design draws the blueprint of power reform

power system reform is an important part of economic system reform and continues to be highly valued by the Party Central Committee and the State Council. In 2012, the report of the 18th CPC National Congress proposed to "comprehensively deepen the reform of the economic system" and "promote the revolution of energy production and consumption". In 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee sounded the horn of comprehensively deepening reform, proposing to "make the market play a decisive role in resource allocation and better play the role of the government" and "promote price reform in water, oil, natural gas, electricity, transportation, telecommunications and other fields"

soon, a new round of power system reform was brewing and broke out. In March, 2015, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued several opinions on further deepening the reform of the power system (Zhongfa [2015] No. 9). Its core content is summarized as "three liberalizations, one independence and three strengthening", that is, orderly liberalizing the competitive link electricity price except transmission and distribution, orderly liberalizing the power distribution business to social capital, and orderly liberalizing the power generation and utilization plan except for public welfare and regulation; Promote the relatively independent and standardized operation of trading institutions; Further strengthen government supervision, further strengthen the overall planning of power, and further strengthen the safe and efficient operation and reliable supply of power

as the top-level design scheme, Document No. 9 describes the blueprint of a new round of power system reform, points out the direction of a new round of power system reform, injects a new booster and catalyst into the power system reform, and restarts the once silent pace of power system reform. In November of the same year, six core supporting documents, including the implementation opinions on promoting the reform of transmission and distribution prices and the implementation opinions on promoting the construction of power market, were released at the same time, giving a "construction drawing" to the new round of power system reform

experts pointed out that the power reform document No. 9 and its supporting documents follow the development law of the power industry, cover the main tasks and core elements of the power system reform, conform to the consensus formed by the international power reform practice, and conform to the general trend of clean and low-carbon development. The new round of power system reform is bound to inject new vitality into the development of China's power industry and national economy, and make a significant contribution to the great process of China's energy revolution and economic and social reform

Since the launch of the new round of power system reform, various reform pilot work, such as the transmission and distribution electricity price reform pilot, the comprehensive electricity reform pilot, the electricity sales side reform pilot, has been rapidly promoted, forming a pattern of comprehensive pilot and multi-mode exploration. "The pilot of power system reform has basically achieved full coverage." On August 29, he Lifeng, director of the national development and Reform Commission, pointed out in his report on the implementation of the national economic and social development plan since this year at the 29th session of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress

the pilot reform of transmission and distribution electricity prices has achieved full coverage of provincial electricity. The pilot reform of power transmission and distribution started in Shenzhen and Mengxi in 2014 and expanded to five provincial-level power stations in Hubei, Ningxia, Anhui, Yunnan and Guizhou the next year. After two expansions in 2016, the pilot reform of transmission and distribution will cover all provincial-level power and North China regional power except Tibet by the end of the year. Recently, the national development and Reform Commission issued a document to organize the reform of power transmission prices in East China, central China, Northeast China and Northwest China on the basis of the pilot reform of power transmission and distribution prices in North China, and plans to complete its transmission price verification by the end of this year

the market competition mechanism on the selling side has been initially established. With the approval of Jiangsu power sales side reform pilot project and Ningdong incremental distribution business pilot project this year, the number of power sales side reform pilot projects started in Guangdong and Chongqing has reached 10 nationwide, and the number of incremental distribution business pilot projects has reached 106. The pilot reform of the power selling side has greatly stimulated the enthusiasm of social investment, and power selling companies have sprung up. According to the national development and Reform Commission released on July 26, there are more than 1800 power selling companies registered in power trading institutions across the country

the comprehensive pilot of power reform was expanded to 22. In November 2015, Yunnan and Guizhou were approved as the first batch of comprehensive electricity reform pilots. In November 2016, the national development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration approved the comprehensive pilot of Hunan power reform. So far, there have been 21 comprehensive electricity reform pilots nationwide. In March this year, Fujian, previously a pilot of the reform of the electricity sales side, was approved as a comprehensive pilot, adding a new force to the comprehensive pilot of the electricity reform

the establishment of the trading center has been basically completed. Up to now, two national power trading centers, Beijing and Guangzhou, have been established and set up market management committees, and provincial power trading centers have been established in all provinces except Hainan. Among them, Guangzhou, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Shanxi, Hubei and Chongqing take the form of joint-stock system. Recently, the Shanghai municipal government issued a document saying that it will speed up the joint-stock restructuring of Shanghai Power Trading Center, complete the study of the plan within this year and organize the implementation according to the situation

the pilot of power spot market construction starts. At present, the South (starting from Guangdong), Mengxi, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Shandong, Fujian, Sichuan, Gansu and other eight regions have been selected as the first batch of power spot market construction pilot. According to the requirements, the pilot areas should speed up the formulation of spot market plans and operating rules, build technical support systems, and start the trial operation of the power spot market by the end of 2018; At the same time, we will actively promote medium - and long-term power transactions that are compatible with the spot market

market-oriented reform promotes cost reduction

with the promotion of a new round of power system reform, electricity trading with market-oriented characteristics, such as direct power purchase by large users, cross provincial and cross regional bidding trading, and electricity sales side retail, has begun to take shape, and the proportion of market-oriented trading electricity is increasing. Among them, the direct power purchase transactions of large users are the largest

the pilot of direct power purchase by large users in China started in 2002, but it was very slow before the 18th CPC National Congress. In 2011, the transaction volume of direct electricity purchase in China was only 8.194 billion kwh, accounting for less than 0.2% of the total social electricity consumption in that year. In 2013, the state announced to cancel the administrative examination and approval project of direct power purchase by large users. Since then, direct power purchase has gradually embarked on the "broad road", and the transaction volume has expanded sharply. By 2015, the direct purchase of electricity by large users across the country will reach 430billion kwh. In 2016, the national market-oriented trading electricity exceeded 1trillion kwh, accounting for about 19% of the total social electricity consumption. Among them, the direct purchase power of large users was close to 800 billion kwh, an increase of 85% year-on-year

according to the data, in the first half of this year, the annual and monthly contracts for direct trading and the centralized trading power of trading platforms were signed across the country, with a total of about 950billion kwh. The transaction volume of direct power purchase within the business areas of state power, Nanfang power and Mengxi power has reached 500 billion kwh, an increase of 50% year-on-year, accounting for 22% of the electricity sales of power enterprises. The raw material formula that cannon "heating equipment" can be used to deal with high-temperature process requirements has reached 22%. The national development and Reform Commission predicts that by the end of the year, the scale of power marketization in the country, including direct power trading, power generation rights trading, and cross provincial power transmission trading, will reach 2trillion kwh, double that of the previous year, accounting for 35% of electricity sales. Among them, the annual scale of direct electricity trading was about 1.2 trillion kwh, an increase of about 50% year-on-year

the reform of electricity market has promoted the decline of electricity price and reduced the electricity cost of enterprises. According to the information disclosed by the national development and Reform Commission, the power industry reduced the energy consumption cost of enterprises by more than 100 billion yuan last year. Among them, the average electricity price per kilowatt hour of market-oriented trading electricity in China has been reduced by about 7.23 points, saving users more than 57.3 billion yuan in electricity charges. In the first half of this year, the average price reduction of electricity in market-oriented transactions has been 4.7 points/kWh, reducing the energy consumption cost of enterprises by about 23billion yuan

"after the reform of transmission and distribution electricity price, the average transmission and distribution electricity price has been reduced by 1 point/kWh compared with the current purchase and sale price difference, and the permitted income of 32 provincial-level electricity has been reduced by about 4 varasok. The team has prepared a larger graphene material of 8billion yuan." On July 26, Zhang Manying, an inspector of the price department of the national development and Reform Commission, said at the press conference that it is expected to reduce the cost of electricity by 100billion yuan throughout the year, including the reduction of electricity price by 18billion yuan for market-based trading, and the reduction of transmission and distribution electricity price by 38billion yuan that year

the Xiongguan pass is like iron, and now we are going to cross over from the beginning. The task of power system reform is still arduous, and the existing contradictions have not been completely straightened out. With the deepening of the reform, new problems and challenges will emerge, which need to continue to move forward with a positive attitude and a bold and fearless spirit of exploration

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